Continuing research into the cause of has found a promising link between a viral infection and type-1 diabetes. In one recent study 83% of children newly diagnosed with type-1 showed the presence of an enterovirus in their system. Only 7% of healthy children had the virus. This is certainly not conclusive evidence, there are no doubt other factors involved, but this discovery is a hopeful sign that one day early signs of risk can be identified and corrective measures taken before the insulin producing cells in the pancreas are destroyed.
Trapped sugars in your blood indicate that your body has lost its
ability to properly absorb the fuels you eat. The normal amount of
sugar found circulating in the blood 12 hours after eating would be 99
or less (measured in milligrams of sugar in each deciliter of blood). A
12-hour fasting blood sugar of 100 to 125 indicates that your body is
struggling to control blood sugars and is called
level of 126 or higher in two separate tests establishes the clinical
diagnosis of diabetes.
What does seem clear is that a sedentary lifestyle, and years of eating diets loaded with
sugar, refined carbohydrates, and unhealthy fats (animal and trans-fats), causes us to gain weight, especially in the
belly. This accumulated fat may simply gum up the doors to the cells. This puts so much
pressure on the pancreas that it wears out
pancreas has been working overtime, probably for many years, making
extra insulin to keep your sugars down. It’s only after the
tires and begins to slow down, a condition called "insulin fatigue,"
that blood sugars begin to rise and diabetes is diagnosed. Focus now on reducing insulin resistance to reduce the pressure on your pancreas. This may help preserve its function and prevent further damage.
Note-I want to stress to my readers that this surgery should not be taken lightly. It irreversible and not without risk of post-surgery complications. It should only be considered when all other health related factors indicate that a patient has greater health risks without the surgery.
The graph below shows how the risk of complications increases as blood sugar rises. Work hard to keep your hemoglobin A1c below 7% and you will most likely avoid severe diabetic complications.
My hgbA1c is just about 7, but my glucometer says my 30 day average is 132. What gives?
Most people check their sugars before meals, so the average shown on your meter is measuring blood sugars at their lowest. The tests your doctor uses also takes into account the rise in blood sugars after your meals. This measurement is called eAG (estimated average glucose) and it relates to your hemoglobin A1c (hgbA1c). It is the average amount of sugar in the blood both before and after a meal that would account for the amount of hemoglobin damage seen.
So how do I regulate my blood sugars?
You must learn to control your blood sugars manually. For
most of your life your body was on “cruise
control”, and the amount of
sugar in your blood was controlled in a very narrow range. But now this
sugar cruise control is broken. Your pancreas is no longer
automatically controlling your blood sugars. Now you need to take
control, and to do that you
need to understand the factors that affect blood sugar and how you can
make healthy changes that will make it easier for you to self-regulate your
sugars and keep them in a healthier range. The first step is twice a
of your blood sugars (like driving a car with broken cruise control you
need to check your gauges to monitor your speed and then make manual adjustments to avoid
*** Remember low blood sugar is more immediately dangerous than a mildly elevated reading. If your blood sugar is less than 80 when you check, it's time to eat something. If your sugar reading is less than 70 or you're experiencing symptoms and feeling shaky, sweaty or weakness, eat 15 grams of fast acting sugar (30 grams if it's below 50), such as 1/3 can of regular soda, or half a glass of orange juice or 4 glucose tabs, available at any drug store, then check again in about 15 minutes. If it's still low take 15 more grams. The general rule is that 15 grams of sugar should raise your blood sugar about 50 points, so don't over do it (a full can of soda has 40 grams of sugar!). After your blood sugar reading is over 80 or symptoms subside, eat a small snack with some protein in it to keep your sugar stable.
My doctor told me I'm only borderline diabetic and that I don't have to do anything right now.
All due respect to your doctor, but this is precisely the time to do something! When your fasting blood sugar is between 100 and 125 the proper term is pre-diabetes. Your pancreas is clearly struggling to control the amount of sugar left in the blood from your previous meal. There is strong evidence that reducing the insulin resistance that's making your pancreas overwork can halt or reverse progression to diabetes. You're not alone in this. The American Diabetes Association estimates that there are about 79 million people in this country with pre-diabetes. Get started today by beginning a sensible exercise program, eating a nutritious well balanced diet and losing some weight.
Are there any warning signs that might tell me
I’m close to having diabetes?
Yes, in fact early indications of this are
apparent in a condition called Metabolic Syndrome.
People that have three
or more of the following symptoms have this metabolic
disorder and are at risk for diabetes.
- Waist size of 40 inches for men and 35 inches for women (or waist size that equals or is larger than your hips)
- 12 hour fasting blood sugar in the pre-diabetes range (100-125)
- Triglycerides in the blood greater than
- HDL cholesterol less than 40 for men and
50 for women
- Blood pressure greater than 130/85 or taking blood pressure medications
This is why diabetes is classified as a
metabolic disorder. Your body isn't metabolizing or "burning" your food
I really don't want to take pills until I have to. Can I control my diabetes without them?
Yes, often you can, especially in the early stages of diabetes when blood sugars are only mildly elevated. It's even possible to get off Medications after you've started by working hard on the other aspects of blood sugar control. Understand that you're not ignoring your diabetes, but rather you're keeping Medication in reserve, as a safety net, and controlling sugars by employing your other tools: Monitor, Meals, Motion, and Motivation. Ultimately, with or without medications, success is measured by maintaining healthy blood sugar levels.
Which of your 5M's is the most important?
I think nothing is more important for effective blood sugar control than eating a nutritious well balanced diet. I'm not suggesting that you "go on a diet." The healthy diet I’m talking about could best be described as the total of all nourishment you supply to your body. It includes materials for activity, growth, repair, and enough energy to complete that work. Of course it’s also undeniable that we eat for reasons other than nourishment and fuel, and these important issues will be discussed below. But from the perspective of basic biology, what you eat, when you eat, and how much you eat are the factors that must be confronted if you are going to get control of your blood sugars.
My problem is that everything I eat seems to turn to fat
You might be right! Researchers have discovered that the kind of bacteria in your intestines (your gut), has a strong influence on whether you burn off your calories or store them as fat. Two main types of bacteria live in your gut, Bacteriodetes (good guys), and Firmicutes (bad guys). These gut bugs aid in digestion and the breakdown of waste products, but they may also affect metabolism, fat storage, and inflammation. Evidence is mounting that the balance of these gut microbes determines whether a person will be lean or obese. If you would like to learn more about this, I've written a piece and provided the sources of research for you at my Diabetes Blog: Gut Check: How Intestinal Bacteria Affect Health and Diabetes Risk.
The exciting part of this news is that the balance of these gut bacteria is largely determined by factors in your environment; the misuse of antibiotics which kill the good bacteria along with the bad, and your diet. “What you eat is proving to be one of the major determinants of…the community of bacteria living in your intestine,” says microbiologist Justin Sonnenburg of the Stanford University School of Medicine. We have some control over these factors! If this new research proves to be true, then the use of prebiotics, foods that encourage the growth of good bacteria, and a good probiotic supplement, which contains live "good guy" bacteria, might help influence this balance of power and help swing us back to a healthy state.
Active culture yogurts, now being heavily advertised, are also a source of these good bacteria, however they may not have enough to really make much difference.
So in the end, we really "are what we eat". Feed the good guys, eat healthy! To learn more about this new research click on these links:
Bacteria and Obesity, and this one:
Gut Flora (scroll down to read the section on obesity),
and finally this new article from July 2010 Newsweek magazine: How bacteria could make you fat.
I've heard that eating a low carb diet can help control diabetes.
I'd qualify that and say that eating a lower carbohydrate diet can help control blood sugars. Carbohydrates, classified as either simple (sugars) or complex (starches), are the simplest food type and so require the least amount of processing in the digestive tract. They are usually released into the blood quickly (15 minutes) where they stimulate the release of insulin from the pancreas, which allows them to be absorbed into the cells for energy. A healthy pancreas has little problem doing this, but for someone with diabetes, or at risk for diabetes, this puts tremendous stress on an already weakened pancreas.
Well then, why not avoid carbohydrates altogether.
Carbohydrates are fuel foods, and we all need energy. Carbohydrates should be eaten in quantities that match your circumstances (i.e. - activity level and metabolism). Lance Armstrong, the famous bicycle racer, got 70% of his calories from carbohydrates. But clearly he had enormous energy demands he had to meet. Most adults, with slower metabolic rates, and a less active lifestyle usually shoot for about 50% of their intake of food in the form of carbohydrates. I think someone with diabetes could eat less, maybe as low as 40% carbohydrate, but it's not really that simple. Besides controlling the amount of carbohydrate in your diet, you need to pay attention to the quality of your "carbs" as well. High quality carbohydrates are natural and unprocessed, and contain plenty of vitamins, minerals and most importantly fiber.
If you are interested in trying this, check out the
South Beach Diet. It's a lower carbohydrate diet that encourages eating lean protein, healthy fats, and high fiber natural "good carbs". I think on balance it offers a sensible lower carbohydrate plan.
A similar reduced carbohydrate plan comes from the Mayo Clinic. It's based on their "Healthy Weight Pyramid" that emphasizes not only a healthy diet, but also exercise, weight loss and health promotion. The diet itself recommends filling up on vegetables, whole fruit, high fiber carbohydrates and healthy fats. This diet is not specifically designed for diabetics however, so I think you should be prudent and limit your intake of fruit. A word of caution here; there has been "fake" mayo clinic diets around for some time. These diets are not associated with the actual Mayo Clinic and are what I would call "fad" diets not based on healthy eating principles. You can read more about the Mayo Clinic approach at their official website:
Mayo Clinic Diet.
What's so important about fiber?
Fiber plays many roles in a healthy diet. First, fiber slows digestion, and this slows the amount of sugar that’s released into the blood at any one time. Remember the old saying; “The whiter your bread, the sooner you’re dead?” Well that’s just a way of saying we need more fiber in our diet. Americans average only about 17 grams of fiber a day, but we need twice that much. Grains have three parts: the germ, full of healthy oil and protein; the bran, or fiber, which slows digestion and helps you feel full, and starch a complex carbohydrate made of sugars that are linked together in long chains. White bread is made with only the starchy part. Whole grains provide the natural balance that nature intended. When you eat starchy foods like white potatoes, or refined starches with the fiber taken out, it raises blood sugars nearly as fast as pure sugar, putting a real strain on your pancreas. Sugars, from the broken down starches, flood into the blood like freeway traffic at rush hour.
One way to combat this blood sugar "traffic jam" is to increase the fiber in your diet by eating fresh vegetables; beans, legumes, peas and lentils; whole grains and cereals; and maybe a piece of fruit each day. To help increase your daily fiber intake try a whole grain, high fiber pasta like those from Dreamfields. Eat brown rice instead of white sticky rice. Switch from white potatoes to a red skin potato, new potatoes, or try a yam or sweet potato. If you like cereal for breakfast be sure to stay away from sugary brands. Try a healthy high fiber cereal like those from Kashi.
These carbohydrates take longer to digest and enter the blood, reducing that after meal blood sugar spike.
Another trick is to eat your starches al dente, or slightly chewy. Undercooking starches helps keep the starch from turning gooey and breaking down right in the pan. Aim for 30-35 grams of fiber per day, but add it slowly, maybe 5 grams at a time, and note your body's response. Fiber helps to keep you regular and avoid constipation, but too much fiber too quickly may cause gas, bloating or diarrhea. Natural sources of fiber are of course best, but if you want to add additional fiber in supplement form, I recommend Benefiber brand. It’s made from soluble fiber so it doesn’t taste gritty and soluble fiber also helps lower your cholesterol.
If I reduce my "carbs" don't I have to increase my fat and protein intake?
Yes, it all has to add up to 100%, but it's not as bad as it sounds. Increasing your lean protein and healthy fat intake can provide real benefits if done correctly.
The sugar traffic jam I described above touches on an important concept, so let's get into detail by reviewing some basic principles of nutrition first. All edible foods fall into three categories; proteins, fats and carbohydrates. That means that everything we eat is made up of one of these types or is a combination of the three. Each is different in its complexity requiring different amounts of time to disassemble it (digest it), and each has its own special purpose in the body, so finding a proper balance is very important.
This idea is better known as Glycemic Index and I think it offers a good strategy to follow if you’re struggling with your meal planning. The idea is based on a simple observation:
Foods don’t digest and supply usable energy at the same rates. Some foods digest slowly and some digest quickly. The concept might be more obvious to you if you think about starting a fire in your fireplace. You know to be careful of lighter fluid because it burns so quickly. Kindling burns slower and helps to stoke the fire and get it going, and a log burns most slowly and provides slow continuous energy. In the same way we need to find a healthy balance in the types of foods we eat. Choose to eat the right balance of foods so your body is supplied with the type and the amount of energy we need; Lean protein and healthy fat will provide you with steady energy so you feel full and satisfied, complex carbs will stoke your internal fire and give you energy when you need it. And fast burning sugars? Well, unless you're training for the Tour de France, those are troublesome and you’re going to have to go easy.
Let's discuss protein in more detail. Protein is what we’re made of; muscle, skin, hair, blood, our internal organs; all protein. So when we eat protein we do so primarily to bring in building supplies for growth and repair. Protein supplies us with four calories of energy per gram, the same as carbohydrates, but protein is very complex and therefore burns slowly providing that satisfying full feeling longer. This is the food that "sticks to the ribs" and helps stabilize blood sugars. Every meal should include some high quality lean protein. Protein will slow the absorption of the carbohydrates in that meal (like making sure you have food in your stomach if you drink alcohol - food slows the absorption of alcohol). Good sources of protein are beans, peas, lentils; low fat dairy, and yogurt; lean meats like chicken, turkey and fish; and nuts and seeds. Even lean cuts of beef and pork can be included in modest amounts. Eggs are also a great source of protein. Although the yolk is high in cholesterol, I think their bad reputation is undeserved. One egg per day shouldn’t cause problems for your cholesterol levels. I believe a healthy diabetic diet should include about 20-25% protein. A word of caution here however, if you’re suffering from kidney disease your protein intake will need to be lowered to accommodate decreased function. Ask your doctor to be sure exactly how much you should include in your diet.
Healthy fats? I thought fat was bad for you.
Fats aren't bad for you; bad fats are bad for you! Healthy fats are, well, healthy. Fat is the richest form of food in our diet, supplying nine calories of energy per gram. Bite for bite that’s more than twice the calories of any other food. It’s complex and slow burning so it mostly provides us with a slow steady background fuel for our body’s daily metabolic needs. It’s also our savings account for times when food is scarce, so we come by our craving of fatty foods naturally. The ability of our ancestors to store fat during times of plenty is certainly one of the most important biological adaptations ever made, but our intake needs to reflect the changes our culture has made and today’s new realities. The television psychologist Dr. Phil says it this way: “We don’t eat any more calories than our grandparents; the problem is we don’t do what our grandparents did.” In other words listening to this ancestral urge to store extra fat for lean times needs to be balanced with the reality that those lean times don’t happen much any more, so nowadays we’re storing too much fat and it’s killing us. The average American brings in about 40% of their calories from fat, and most of that is from unhealthy sources. I think 30-35% is a better number and remember these should come from healthy sources. Natural fats from plants in the form of oils should be the main source of fat in our diet. Olive oil, canola oil, the oils from nuts and seeds, omega-3 oils, and yes, even avocados are cholesterol free and full of healthy fat. They’re easy to digest and use for fuel rather than storing around the waistline. Peanut butter is a great snack, but be sure to get the natural kind (with oil on the top). Make room in your diet for these healthy fats by getting bad fats out!
Okay, so which ones are the unhealthy fats I should avoid?
Bad fats come from two sources, one natural, the other man-made. They are - animal fats and trans-fat. These types of fat are easily recognizable because they’re solid at room temperature- white and greasy. They’re like this because of their chemical structure. The carbon chain that makes up the backbone of these fat molecules is surrounded, or saturated, with hydrogen. This hydrogenated fat is structurally stable and therefore difficult to break down. Good for frying, bad for digesting. Remember too that cholesterol only comes from animals, so animal fat is loaded with it.
Trans-fats are artificially saturated with hydrogen. These hydrogenated (or partially-hydrogenated) fats are made by forcing hydrogen onto a plant fat where nature didn’t have one before. Crisco first made “shortening” in 1911. This new form of man-made fat, hardened plant fat, was more resistant to breakdown and didn’t turn rancid as fast. This allowed the commercial food industry to box foods and put them on the shelves without fear of spoilage. The problem? We now understand that the bond that’s created in this process, the trans-bond, is difficult to digest (in Latin the word ‘trans’ means across). The carbon chain twists, leaving the added hydrogen across from each other - a trans-fat). Trans-fats, being resistant to breakdown, tend to stick around and cause health problems. If you don't burn it, you wear it.
While trans-fats have no cholesterol themselves they do cause your bad cholesterol to go up, your good cholesterol to go down, and also increase insulin resistance and blood vessel inflammation that leads to an acceleration of the diabetic complications we discussed earlier. In January of 2006 the U.S. government began requiring that food labels show the amount of trans-fat in all packaged goods. Fast food restaurants however aren’t getting the message and are probably the greatest source of these artery-clogging fats. Bad idea. Avoid them! If you’re unconvinced about this or need reminding, play this clip from the documentary
Fast Food Nation,
or this clip from the movie
Super Size Me.
It’s a real eye opener. It’s about a young man who ate three meals a day from McDonalds for a full month. Not a happy ending. Trans-fats really need to be avoided in all foods. Read food labels and choose wisely.
What about butter and margarine? Which is better for you?
Butter is an animal fat and has loads of cholesterol so use it sparingly. You need some cholesterol, but your liver makes all that your body needs. Cholesterol isn’t bad, it’s actually necessary to help strengthen cell walls and also to make bile and certain hormones your body needs. Too much cholesterol however will build up and clog arteries increasing your risk of heart attack and stroke. Remember when you have diabetes you have extra sugars in the blood which damage the smooth inner lining of your arteries. In the same way that rough, damaged spots on a Teflon cooking pan cause food to stick, rough spots in your blood vessels give cholesterol a chance to stick and begin to clog. One million heart attacks and half a million strokes occur in this country every year because of clogged blood vessels. Watch your cholesterol levels!
Margarines on the other hand are made from liquid vegetable oils, which have no cholesterol. The problem here is that the oils must first be hardened into a spreadable form. It’s this process of artificial hardening called hydrogenation that turns them into unhealthy trans-fats, the worst kind of fat (remember Oleo?). Manufacturers of margarines however are trying to make healthy changes. New spreads that don’t use trans-fats are appearing on the market and these are considered healthy to eat. Look on the label before you buy and choose brands that use healthy fats. Benecol or Smart Balance are two that I would recommend.
I usually skip breakfast to help keep my sugars down. Is this a good idea?
No, it's actually a very bad idea to skip breakfast. It seems to defy logic, but studies have shown that people who skip breakfast actually weigh more than people who eat breakfast. People who skip breakfast because they’re not “hungry” or because they think they can save a few hundred calories and help their weight loss plan; actually do more harm than good. Skipping breakfast means you will likely go 16 hours without food. This sets off a reaction in your body similar to a starvation reaction. Your metabolism slows and your body begins to crave food. During times of starvation your body actually starts to burn lean muscle tissue and tries hold on to its supply of fat. When you do finally eat your body is so “starved” that you tend to eat too much and often eat the wrong foods. Large meals alternating with periods of starvation set up a "roller coaster effect" with blood sugars ranging high then low then high again. Stay off the roller coaster! Eating smaller meals, more often will help to stabilize blood sugar swings and provide just enough fuel that you don’t feel hungry or deprived. In fact getting into the habit of eating a little something every 3 or 4 hours during the day makes a lot of sense. Hunger is a survival mechanism. By the time you feel “hungry” your body is already making unhealthy metabolic changes that are working against you.
I know it would help if I bought better foods. Any help with grocery shopping?
Be especially careful when you’re going grocery shopping or heading out to a restaurant to eat. Grocery shopping when you’re hungry often leads to poor choices and the purchase of foods you know will sabotage your diet plan. Make a list before you go and be careful of adding “impulse items” while you’re shopping. Heeding the old saying "shop around the outside of the market" is pretty good advice. Nowadays restaurant meals are much too large to be eaten all at one sitting. Don’t eat large meals! Besides affecting your blood sugars, heartburn and related conditions are made worse when you eat too much because abdominal fat doesn’t make room for your stomach to expand very much. The pressure created on the stomach causes food to be forced back up into your throat where sensitive tissue is burned by stomach acid. You can protect against “portion distortion” by asking for a carry-out box when your meal is brought to the table. Divide the portion before you start eating and you won’t struggle with the issue of when to stop eating. Of course if you are with someone, simply sharing one meal is a great solution to portion distortion.
I've heard about portion distortion. So how do I know how much to eat?
That’s tricky. When patients ask me “how many calories do I need to eat each day?” I respond by saying “it depends.” Not a satisfactory answer I know, but they would get the same answer if they asked me “how much gas do I need in my car each day?” You know that depends on how much fuel your car burns and how far you drive each day. How much you eat should be based primarily on need.
Your body needs fuel based on two things, your basal metabolism, and your activity level. Basal metabolism is how much you burn at rest. In general you can figure it this way: Your body is burning about 1 calorie of energy every minute just to carry on basic life processes. Since there’s 1,440 minutes in each day, you would need to provide that much fuel in balanced amounts to maintain your present weight. Any more fuel than that will be stored as fat for future needs and you gain weight, less fuel than that and you will have to withdraw some energy from your fat cells to make up the difference and you’ll lose weight.
Of course you don’t sit or sleep every minute of the day, so each minute that you’re more active you’re burning more than one calorie per minute. Walking burns about 5 calories per minute and more vigorous activities burn even more, perhaps 10 calories per minute. Remember Lance Armstrong? He ate 7,000 calories a day to meet his needs during his bike racing days. Now that he’s retired he has to cut back and eat only what his less active body needs. You need to find the range that meets your caloric needs. I’m guessing that for most of you it will be between 1,500 and 1,800 calories per day. This amount is enough to supply good balanced nourishment, and also enough food that you don’t feel deprived. Never eat less than 1,200 calories each day unless you are under direct care from a medical doctor or registered dietician. Don’t try to starve yourself! Diets that are too strict are destined to fail because they are so restrictive it’s virtually impossible to stay on them very long.
Here's a trick you can use to see if your meals are balanced as to carb-protein-fat content and are the proper portion size. Check your blood sugar before you eat and then again 2 hours after your meal. Your blood sugar at that time should be less than 180. Check like this often to satisfy any doubts you have and learn which meals are well balanced, and which recipes need to be re-worked by perhaps lowering the carbohydrate amount, or simply reducing the portion size.
What about sugar substitutes? Can I use them without raising my blood sugar?
Artificial sweeteners aren't digestible, so they don't raise blood sugars; however be careful that you're not setting a trap for yourself. These sweeteners may become triggers that encourage cravings for more sweets. Eating things that are unnaturally sweet certainly raises the sweetness bar, making it less likely you'll find satisfaction eating real food. Read more on this topic by reading "What Chance Does an Apple Have?" at my Diabetes Blog.
I think that sugar substitutes like Sweet-n-low, Equal (NutraSweet), or Splenda, as a way of cutting back on sugar, can play a useful role in your diet if used in moderation. Some concerns have been raised about their long-term safety. Aspartame, the sweetener found in Equal(NutraSweet), is said to be unstable when it gets hot, causing it to break down into harmful byproducts. I personally don’t think the evidence they cause harm is strong enough that they need to be totally avoided, but if you believe you’re having side-effects like headaches or body aches, stop using them altogether.
Of the three products available on the market, I think sucralose, sold under the brand name Splenda, is the best choice. The main advantage is that it’s chemically stable and won’t break down even when you cook with it. This can really help those of you who are trying to prepare satisfying meals for a family. I also think it has a more natural taste, so no one is likely to notice the substitution. The fact that Splenda is so chemically stable is also an advantage because since it isn’t broken down into other chemicals, isn’t absorbed into the body tissues and is quickly eliminated from the body unchanged; I see no potential for harm. Daily coffee or a diet soda once in a while is not likely to cause any problems, but half a dozen diet sodas a day is way too much and not a good idea.
Another group of sweeteners, sugar alcohols like sorbitol or maltitol, are digestible and will raise blood sugars some, though usually not as much as sugar itself. The thing to be careful of is how much you’re getting. Sugar alcohols have a laxative effect and some people are very sensitive to them. If you have diarrhea after eating sugarless ice cream, or dietetic chocolates, this is likely the cause. Go easy on these until you know how you’re body is going to react.
A new product on the market that might be useful is Stevia. Stevia comes from the leaves of a South American plant. It can be purchased by that name or as "Truvia". I've gotten mixed reviews from my patients, but give it a try and see if you like the taste.
What about cinnamon? I heard it lowers blood sugar.
Research has shown that as little as 1 gram (1/2 teaspoon) of cinnamon may in fact help lower blood sugars. The type of cinnamon used in most of these studies is cassia cinnamon, sometimes call Chinese cinnamon (This type is different from Ceylon or true cinnamon). Cassia cinnamon is the most common type found in this country, but check the label to be sure. The active ingredient in cinnamon is Proanthrocyanidin, the water soluble part of cinnamon. It is thought to function by activating the insulin receptor on the surface of the cell allowing the cell to absorb sugar from the blood. Cinnamon oil did not show this blood sugar lowering effect. I think, given these research findings, that cinnamon supplements may be helpful if nothing more than offering a tasty addition to food besides sugar. Talk to your doctor about this and then proceed carefully so that you don't put yourself at risk of a hypoglycemic event. Just in case it actually works.
What do you think about supplements in general?
I think supplements can be useful safeguards. Be clear with yourself however; supplements are not substitutes. There are no shortcuts that can take the place of a healthy lifestyle. I see it as 95% healthy choices and maybe 5% help from supplements, not the other way around. Over my years as a diabetes educator I've heard about many "miracle cures" for diabetes. I'm open, but also a bit skeptical. If you want to try fish oil, or a good multiple vitamin or ginkgo biloba, chromium, or selenium, talk to your doctor first (some supplements can have significant effects on things like blood thinning). Then find a reputable company. This industry (food supplements) has very little oversight and I have heard horror stories about purity issues, and "fake ingredients". Here is a website link that may help direct your search: Nutrition Data. Another site, run by the U.S. Department of Agriculture is:
Food and Nutrition Information Center.
Can I drink alcohol?
While it's not absolutely forbidden for a healthy diabetic to drink, alcohol use may complicate your treatment plan for a number of reasons. Drinking alcohol will, in the short term, raise blood sugars because of the carbohydrates in the drink, but in the hours following you may put yourself a risk for a hypoglycemic episode (low sugar) because of the effect alcohol has on the liver. Never drink on an empty stomach. Remember that many of your medicines advise against using alcohol because it can increase the risk of side effects or magnify them. This is an important discussion that you need to have with your doctor. Together you can come to an understanding of what your risks are and whether a glass of beer or wine with a meal is okay for you.
Sometimes I find myself eating when I'm not really hungry. What can I do about overeating?
My final thought on eating has to do with the constant battle of wants versus needs. Many of my patients struggle with overeating not so much because of hunger, but because of a lack of satiety. Satiety is the feeling of being satisfied with a meal and is just as powerful an urge as hunger itself. Here are some ideas on that.
First, take smaller bites and eat more slowly. The feeling of fullness after a meal is not just in the stomach, it’s also in the brain. The body produces chemicals, which control the urge to eat. One of these hormones, leptin, is responsible for letting the brain know when you’re full and should stop eating. The problem is that it takes about 30 minutes for this chemical to be released and go to work. If you eat too fast you can “over-consume” and eat far more than your body really needs or wants. If you’re eating small meals more often, as I suggest, this will be much easier to do because you won’t feel so starved that you lose control. Emotional eating, and by this I mean compulsive eating, is sometimes a sign of clinical depression. Talk with your doctor or counselor about your feelings about food and eating.
Take joy in eating. It's a good thing when it’s done in a healthy way. Don't make food the enemy or you'll be doomed to fight your whole life. Guilt is just "stinkin thinkin”.
In his book Healthy Pleasures
Dr. David Sobel suggests that if we learn to enjoy all of the pleasurable aspects of eating we benefit by feeling greater overall satisfaction. Learn to eat more slowly and savor your food. Use this time to talk to your companions. Eat a wide variety of foods and take time to appreciate all the different flavors and smells and textures. Even the process of cooking itself is an important part of the joy of eating. Enjoy the whole experience. All of these things will leave you feeling more satisfied after meals and help you guard against mindless over-consumption.
My doctor wants me to exercise, and I would if I only had more energy.
Lack of energy is one of the most common complaints I get from my diabetic patients, but the reason for this tired feeling might surprise you. Remember earlier I discussed how extra sugar is trapped in the blood? You may be feeling tired and hungry because the sugar in your blood simply hasn’t been delivered. It has to be absorbed into the cell for you to have energy. Your cells aren’t getting energy because the doors are jammed shut and insulin is having a tough time getting them to open and accept the sugar from your blood (insulin resistance). Using your muscles can help that. You see, because they protect us from danger, muscles have a special ability to draw those unburned sugars into the cell. Imagine there was a fire and you needed to escape, you would have plenty of energy right? Well you can use this to your advantage and the great thing is there doesn’t have to be a real fire to do it. The next time you feel tired and hungry check your blood sugar level. If it’s 80 or lower, it’s time to eat. But if it’s 180, you have plenty of fuel in the blood. Don’t eat and add more fuel on top of it, burn what’s there by going for a walk or by doing some other form of gentle exercise. When the muscles begin to draw these sugars from the blood you will actually feel better. Talk to your doctor and get the okay; then start slowly with a type of activity that suits your lifestyle and takes into account any physical limitations you may have. You may find that exercising in a swimming pool will give you a good workout without the stress on aching joints. Whatever you do, rediscover the fun you had when you were a child at play and make it enjoyable. Click this link to read When We Were Young We Called it 'Play' on my Diabetes Blog.
I tried exercising and found that my blood sugar was actually higher when I got back.
This is true for many people, but don't worry about this type of sugar rise unless it persists long after your exercise is over. Just as breathing increases with exercise, sugars are released from the liver when active muscles call for it. Sugar levels, just like your breathing, will return to normal or lower in a short time.
In fact since exercise stimulates your metabolism, your body will continue to burn excess calories long after you’re activity has finished. Right now as you sit and read this your body is burning fuel, and just like a car, how much you burn depends on how fast you’re going. Well, your body is idling right now so you’re only burning a minimum amount of fuel, about one calorie per minute. When you’re out walking, doing yard work or house work, your body is burning about 5 calories of energy every minute. If you walk for 1 hour each day you’ll burn up over 2,000 excess calories of energy each week that would have been stored as fat. In a year’s time that’s over 30 pounds of fat. You can see how this really adds up. Some very fit people can exercise at sustained levels that burn well over 10 calories per minute. Remember Lance Armstrong? His main concern regarding food was “am I getting enough”. Wouldn’t that be a welcome problem to have for a change?
My blood sugar has been rising for the past few months and now my doctor says it's time to start taking medication to help. What do these pills do?
You may recall from the reading above how your pancreas was damaged by overwork in the years leading up to your diagnosis of diabetes. For many years it controlled your blood sugars by producing extra insulin, compensating for the fact that your cells weren’t responding to this chemical key.
At some point, if a healthy diet, exercise and weight loss are no longer sufficient to keep blood sugars stable, you will need the additional help that diabetic medications offer. There are three main types of oral (pills) medications, each designed to work in a different way. One type stimulates your pancreas to produce a little extra insulin for mealtimes, another works by preventing your liver from inappropriately dumping unneeded sugar into the blood, while others sensitize the cells to respond better to the insulin you are producing.
Can you describe how each of these pills works to lower my sugar?
There are three classes of oral medications commonly used to treat high blood sugars (hyperglycemia).
The first class of drugs is called secretagogues because they stimulate the pancreas to produce (secrete) extra insulin. These are best taken about 30 minutes before a meal to give the pancreas time to react and produce the extra insulin needed for the upcoming meal.
Tolinase (tolazamide), Glucotrol (glipizide), Micronase (glyburide), Orinase (tolbutamide), Prandin (repaglinide), and Starlix (nateglinide) are examples of these. (Note – Drugs have two names and this may sometimes seem confusing. The capitalized word is the name the company gave it, their registered trademark. The other is the actual generic drug name). Of the medications mentioned in this class, Prandin and Starlix are shorter acting for those who tend to have after-meal blood sugar spikes that drop back into the normal range quickly. This shorter acting formulation lessens the risk of blood sugars being lowered too much in the hours after your meal.
The second drug commonly used is Glucophage (metformin). This medication slows the release of sugars that are stored in the liver. One of the many jobs of the liver is to store extra sugars and release them during emergencies (fight or flight reaction) and when blood sugars drop during the night. Many of you may experience this “Dawn Effect” and find that your morning sugar readings are higher then when you went to bed. Glucophage will help lessen this effect. Take this medication with food and start slowly to avoid the possibility of stomach distress. Most patients start with a single 500 mg (milligram) tablet once a day (dinner). If your doctor prescribes more than a single pill daily, wait until your body gets used to the lower dose before adding more. Usually add the second pill after one week (breakfast). If there is a third pill to take, wait until the third week then add it to your lunchtime/diner meal as your doctor directs. Glucophage also helps lower insulin resistance and sensitize the cells so they use insulin more efficiently by opening the “doors” that have been stuck shut. This sensitizing effect makes this drug an effective option for people with “metabolic syndrome” because of added abdominal body fat. It can also be used in combination with any of the medications from the first group of drugs mentioned above (e.g. glipizide) to help lower blood sugars even more effectively than using one class alone.
The third most commonly prescribed oral medication is Actos (pioglitazone). This medication works as an insulin sensitizer to reduce insulin resistance and make your insulin work better. Remember the key (insulin) and lock (cell wall) analogy? Actos is all about getting the lock to open more easily. Actos tends to cause water retention, so it must be used with care in patients with congestive heart failure. Also make sure to have periodic liver function tests to monitor any negative reaction to your diabetic medications. For patients struggling to maintain stable blood sugars, Actos can also be added to the others to make a triple combination therapy, though most often a patient will begin adding insulin injections at this point.
UPDATE: A new research study has just been released regarding Actos (March 2011). The study found that progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes was reduced by over 70% in those taking actos.
Drug prevents type-2 diabetes in majority of high risk individuals. "It's a blockbuster study," said senior author Ralph DeFronzo, M.D., professor in the School of Medicine and chief of the diabetes division at the UT Health Science Center San Antonio. "The 72 percent reduction is the largest decrease in the conversion rate of pre-diabetes to diabetes that has ever been demonstrated by any intervention, be it diet, exercise or medication."
Note-Avandia (rosiglitazone), a diabetes medication chemically similar to Actos, has been linked to heart attacks and heart failure and now requires a special "black box" warning label. Talk to your doctor about this before starting this medication. Check out this website to learn more about this drug and efforts to recall it and remove it from the market:
Avandia Side Effects.
Newer drugs to hit the market attempt to control blood sugars by manipulating gastrointestinal hormones called incretins. Insulin is quickly released into the blood, even before blood sugar begins to rise, due to the action of two gut hormones called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). Both of these hormones play a key role in blood sugar control by stimulating the release of insulin, inhibiting the release of the counter-regulatory hormone glucagon, and by slowing how fast food is released from the stomach. Two incretin analogs (drugs that mimic GLP-1 hormone), are now being used as a therapy in type-2 diabetes. Byetta (exenatide) and Victoza (liraglutide) are examples. One drawback with these two drugs is that they must be injected. Difficulties were encountered when trying to fully utilize these incretins however because in the body they are quickly inactivated by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4). This has led researchers to create drugs like Januvia (sitagliptin), or Onglyza (saxaglyptin), which inhibit the action of DPP-4. These are taken in pill form.
One word of caution. DPP-4 enzyme is known to be involved in tumor suppression, which leads some researchers to fear that inhibiting this enzyme may spur the growth of certain cancers. Speak to your doctor about this if you're taking DPP-4 inhibitors or considering it.
One other drug worth mentioning is Symlin (pramlintide). This drug is an analog (chemically similar) to the natural hormone amylin which is made in the pancreas by the same beta-cells that make insulin. It is thought to partner synergistically with insulin to lower blood sugar. It is indicated only for those who use mealtime insulin, and is administered by a separate injection. Severe hypoglycemia is a major concern and a 30% reduction in the units of insulin is usually required. Because it has been shown to decrease appetite, it may also activate the satiety centers in the brain.
I encourage you to learn as much as you can about the drugs your take. Don't forget, what you do to control your blood sugars outside the clinic is just as important as anything that happens there. Work on your M's (Meals, Motion, Monitoring, and Motivation) first to lessen the need for medications. A good website to gather information about the medications you may be taking can be found at:
Drugwatch. It features up-to-date information on the drug side-effects of prescription and over-the-counter medications and publishes alerts to aid in the protection of patients and consumers.
My doctor wants me to start insulin, but I'm afraid. My grandmother started insulin and ended up having kidney damage. Doesn't insulin cause complications?
No, it doesn't cause complications, in fact it will prevent them. All animals need insulin to survive (my neighbor's cat needs two shots of insulin each day). Your grandmother's kidney complication was the result of damage that occurred before she started insulin. When natural insulin production gets very low, and oral medications are no longer effective in controlling sugar levels, supplemental injections of insulin are necessary. This need for insulin shouldn't be seen as a failure on your part (any more than wearing glasses to compensate for weakening eyesight), and it doesn't mean that your diabetes is now "the bad type". In fact I believe that in many cases we wait too long to begin using insulin. Research indicates that intensive insulin therapy at the time of diagnosis may help to preserve the function of your pancreas and make it easier to control your diabetes later on. Have a frank discussion with your doctor about this and don't be afraid to try insulin therapy. You will be surprised to find that the injection itself hurts less than your daily finger stick. Good news on that front is that a new "oral" insulin is being tested. It isn't a pill, it's a spray that's absorbed in the mouth. Stay tuned, we should know about its effectiveness in the next few years. The important thing, whether you take oral medications or insulin, is that blood sugars be controlled in as normal a range as possible.
Won't I gain a lot of weight when I start insulin?
Not necessarily. Often the use of diabetic medications means some added weight, but this effect can be reduced by making healthy changes to your portion size. Remember that some of the sugar in the blood that was not absorbed by the cell is then lost in the urine. The ancient Greeks wrote that honey bees were attracted to the urine of people with diabetes (diabetes mellitus translates "sweet urine"). It's a normal urge to begin eating more when you don't absorb all that you eat. Once you start taking diabetic medications you should re-evaluate your portion sizes at mealtime since now you will be absorbing your calories so much more efficiently.
I know that stress isn't good for your health, but will it affect my blood sugar?
Yes it will. Unrelieved stress is one of the things that will not only have an effect on your emotions and overall health; it will have a direct effect on your blood sugars.
The body views stress as an attack or challenge, and responds by preparing our bodies to fight or flee. Adrenalin and the stress hormone cortisol are pumped into the blood from glands just above the kidneys; your heart begins to beat faster and blood pressure goes up; and blood sugars rise, all to help you escape the danger at hand. In a more natural situation, real danger would pass and our bodies would return to a normal state. But in today’s world many "dangers" do not pass, so instead of the action found in fight or flight, our response is to freeze, leaving ourselves in a state of constant anxiety. These modern day "dangers" in fact, don’t even have to be a real or immediate threat. If we perceive it as threatening in any sense of the word; fear, anger, even frustration or uncertainty; in any case, we’re left with the continuing feeling of anxiety, and fear. This lack of resolution of distress leaves us literally “stewing in our own juices”. This type of unrelieved stress is one of the most insidious factors negatively affecting our health and well-being. Cortisol, also known as the stress hormone, may be responsible for the increase in belly fat seen in many type-2 diabetics. Studies show that when a person is overly stressed, the body reacts by storing away extra fat in anticipation of the coming danger.
Before we leave this point I want to be sure you understand what I mean by unrelieved stress. In his book "Stress without distress" Hans Selye describes stress as not a single thing, but rather a continuum that starts low and continues to high. Some stress is necessary in our lives. In fact stressors are what give our lives richness and meaning. If we had no stress in our lives, we would have no reason to get out of bed in the morning; no reason to live. A research study was done in Florida to determine how stress affected the health of retirees in an “old folk's home”. The term was used purposely because it implies the conditions they found; an old, run down facility where people simply sat out their last years with very limited stimulation. When the researchers changed the environment by opening windows to let in more light, playing music, taking the patients out into the garden, bringing in a box of puppies and letting them play, things began to change. Patients’ depression lessened and moods became brighter, they had more energy and began to get themselves up and take better care of their hygiene, they slept better and laughed more and most importantly they lived longer. All of us need some stimulation in life, some reason to live. This level of stress is termed eustress, which means normal or good stress. It gives our lives meaning. When we fill our lives with activities and things that are meaningful, we increase our stress, but in a healthy way.
Each of us has the ability to deal with stress in life, but everyone has limits. When we exceed our limits we move into another zone of stress termed distress. This term is more common to us and we all know that distress is a bad thing. Most of us, however, don’t appreciate just how damaging it is on our health. To further complicate things, none of us enters this zone of distress at the same time. Some people are able to perform quite challenging, even frightening activities with no apparent distress. Take a racecar driver for example, or a mountain climber, or bungee jumper. Most of us would not be having fun if we were hanging from a cliff by a single thin rope. Why do some people have the ability to stretch their limits? Well, we simply don’t know, and for our purposes, it’s really not important. What's important is that we acknowledge that all of us have limits, and honor them.
What each of us must do to avoid distress is know when we enter the distress zone. There will likely be signs if we pay attention. When we have too much on our plates, and become overwhelmed, sleep patterns might be affected. One person might sleep too much, another, not at all. You might lose your appetite or eat compulsively. Bowel movements may change from constipation to diarrhea and back again. Some people might have headaches or difficulty concentrating. Accidents are common from not paying attention to the moment, or from moving too fast before we look. Depression, anger, and resentment are often present when a person exceeds their emotional or physical limitations and falls into a state of distress.
Our bodies are built for action, so fight or flee as appropriate, just don't freeze. Take Action. Go for a walk, read, listen to soothing music, meditate or pray, there is no one best way. The best way is your way, the way that works for you. Find healthy ways to relieve your distress, and do it often. The comedian Lily Thomlin says it simply: "For fast acting relief, try slowing down".
Many years ago one of my patients reminded me of our mortality by suggesting that regardless of the state of one's health we are all just a heartbeat away from eternity. She then said "I'm grateful for today, and hopeful for tomorrow. In the meantime I enjoy the time I'm given".
When I’m feeling low and overwhelmed I like to re-read the wise and comforting words found in Max Ehrmann’s famous poem Desiderata.
In part it reminds us: "But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings.
Many fears are born of fatigue and loneliness.
Beyond a wholesome discipline,
be gentle with yourself."
This humorous adaptation was offered to me by one of my friends at Diabetic Connect. I hope it makes you smile.
Desiderata for Diabetics
Go placidly amid the noise and the haste,
And remember that stress and cortisol may raise your levels.
As far as possible, without surrender,
be on good terms with health care professionals of all types.
Speak your truth quietly and clearly;
and listen to others,
except to the diet and diabetes police;
they just don’t get it.
Avoid loud and aggressive persons;
they are vexatious to good glycemic control.
If you compare your HbA1c with others,
you may become vain or bitter,
for always there will be greater and lesser numbers than your own.
Enjoy your achievements as well as your plans.
Keep interested in your own blood sugar diary, however humble;
it is a real possession in the changing fortunes of time.
Exercise caution in following fads and online cures,
for the world is full of trickery.
But let this not blind you to what virtue there is in GI and GL diets;
many persons strive for perfect control,
and everywhere life is full of Joslin medalists.
Be yourself. Especially do not forget your insulin.
Neither be cynical about the bond between fellow sufferers,
for in the face of all aridity and disenchantment,
it is as perennial as the grass.
Take kindly the counsel of the old timers,
remaining optimistic about the future for the young.
Nurture strength of spirit to shield you should your retinopathy scan not be perfect.
But do not distress yourself with dark imaginings.
Many fears are born of looking at the wrong sites on the internet.
Beyond a wholesome discipline,
treat yourself from time to time.
You are a person with diabetes
no less than the trees and the stars;
you have a right to be here.
And whether or not it is clear to you,
no doubt the universe is unfolding as it should.
Therefore be at peace with your endocrinologist,
however lacking in knowledge you perceive him to be.
And whatever your labors and aspirations,
in the noisy confusion of life,
make sure you have enough test strips.
With all its sham, drudgery, and broken dreams,
it is still a beautiful world.
Be cheerful. Strive to be happy.
I know that motivation is important, but that's the one I'm having trouble with. I sometimes get really discouraged. Besides your diabetes DVD can you recommend any books or websites that will help me stay on track?
Your condition, diabetes, is considered chronic, it's not yet curable. This means that you'll probably live with diabetes the rest of your life (remember, your sugar cruise control is broken). Proper management is the secret to living well with diabetes, and to do that you need to have knowledge about your condition, support from your doctors; your friends and loved ones; and the motivation to carry on even when you are weary.
Remember that what you do to maintain good health when you leave the clinic is just as important as anything the doctor can do. In fact, you are the most important part of the process of staying well. So find a natural balance and don't try to be everything to everybody.
The serenity prayer offers wisdom on the subject:
Give me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change;
Courage to change the things I can,
And the wisdom to know the difference.
Here are some other helpful books and websites that will help you stay motivated and on track.
Diabetes Burnout by William H. Polonsky, is a supportive guide to keeping you on track during tough times.
For healthy eating tips I think the
Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight Pyramid is a good guide to follow, but remember you will have to limit your intake of fruit.
Michael Pollan's book In Defense of Food: An Eaters Manifesto is a fantastic book and will make you reconsider everything you thought you knew about food. His advice is simple: "Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants." Follow his motto: "If it came from a plant, eat it; if it was made at a plant, don't."
I've written on the subject of eating pre-packaged, highly processed 'plant' food on my Diabetes Blog.
For Better Health Stop Eating 'Plant' Food.
Eat This Not That book and website may be helpful when trying to make better food choices, especially as it relates to calories.
Marion Nestle is one of the formost experts on food and nutrition. I trust her opinions. Her book
What to Eat is an excellent indepth resource that explores and explains the reasons why we shouldn't simply accept "store bought" foods at face value. "The foods that sell best and bring in the most profits are not necessarily the ones that are best for your health, and the conflict between health and business goals is at the root of public confusion about food choices." She believes that "research breakthroughs and seemingly contradictory findings about one or another nutrient, food, or diet plan are taken out of context. Nutrition arguments are almost invariably about single nutrients taken out of their food context, single foods taken out of their dietary context, or single risk factors and diseases taken out of their lifestyle context." She suggests following 4 basic precepts: "Eat less, move more, eat lots of fruits and vegetables, and go easy on the junk foods." Click the 'What to Eat' link above and scroll down to read the comments about this great book.
South Beach Diet is a lower carbohydrate diet that encourages eating lean protein, healthy fats, and high fiber natural "good carbs".
Check out Toma Grubb's website and new book
Toma's Diabetic Diet - A Layman's Guide to Controlling Blood Glucose with Diet.
He includes a trial version of CyberSoft's Nutribase-7 Personal Plus Nutrition and Fitness Software
that helps you make healthy eating choices and track the results.
One of the early pioneers of diabetes information online is David Mendosa. His website is an excellent source of information on all things related to diabetes.
Toma and David are both living well with diabetes and are an inspiration to others wanting to control their blood sugars and avoid health problems by adopting a healthy lifestyle.
A good book and resource for understanding glycemic index and healthy eating is The New Glucose Revolution.
by Jennie Brand-Miller.
I also think you should get a calorie-counting guide and begin to learn about the foods you eat.
I recommend Allan Borushek’s The CalorieKing Calorie, Fat & Carb Counter.
This book is full of great ideas and explanations about how to make healthy food choices.
For those of you who like to chat online, I will recommend a wonderful website where you can network with other people with diabetes, ask questions and get ideas and support at Diabetic Connect.
Finally, if you would like to get involved with community-based programs that increase awareness about diabetes, the American Diabetes Association website can help get you connected and active locally.
For updates and further reading on issues surrounding diabetes, follow me at:
David Hite's Diabetes Blog on the Diabetes Product Source website.
I hope my explanations in this section have been helpful. Be your own advocate, your own best friend, and most importantly, don’t beat yourself up over small setbacks. Good diabetes control is not about being perfect. Believe in yourself and in your ability to take control of your life and control your diabetes; then take the first step toward living a healthy life. Remember, knowledge is most powerful when it leads to positive change.
If this Diabetes Basics: Questions and Answers section was helpful or if you have suggestions to improve it please email your comments to: Doc@healthdoc.org. Good health. Live well.
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